Ir para o menu de navegação principal Ir para o conteúdo principal Ir para o rodapé


v. 9 (2022): Revista de Estudos Empíricos em Direito

Visões sobre medidas restritivas entre profissionais do direito brasileiros durante o surto da COVID-19: uma análise exploratória de pesquisa rápida

setembro 3, 2021


A COVID-19 teve profundo impacto nas vidas de indivíduos, organizações e países no mundo. Profissionais e instituições do direito não estiveram ausentes dessa história. Governos adotaram diferentes abordagens para lidar com a pandemia, as quais – num contexto de relações sociais cada vez mais judicializadas – geraram inevitáveis disputas judiciais. No centro dessas disputas estiveram medidas restritivas como proibição do funcionamento de negócios não-essenciais, restrições à circulação de pessoas e quarentena obrigatória para infectados. Essas disputas foram ainda enredadas em conflitos políticos e polarização, como bem exemplifica o caso do Brasil sob Jair Bolsonaro. Nesse cenário, este artigo investiga: Os(as) profissionais do direito no Brasil entenderam as medidas restritivas e o poder de entes governamentais de editá-las como sendo consistentes com ‘o direito’? O que explica a variação nessas visões? Explorando dados de uma pesquisa rápida realizada durante o surto de pandemia no país, o artigo aponta para o papel de variáveis como compreensões e experiência da pandemia, orientação e atitudes políticas, e o nexo entre conhecimento jurídico e Estado na determinação das atitudes dessa população. Discute-se as implicações desses achados para estudos sobre profissionais do direito, pandemias e o Estado de Direito no Brasil e para além do Brasil.


  1. Abbot, E. B. (2007). Law, Federalism, the Constitution, and Control of Pandemic Flu. Asian-Pacific Law & Policy Journal, 9(2), 185-212. Retrieved from
  3. Allcott, H., Boxell, L., Conway, J., Gentzkow, M., Thaler, M., & Yang, D. (2020). Polarization and public health: Partisan differences in social distancing during the coronavirus pandemic. J Public Econ, 191, 104254. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2020.104254
  4. Archibugi, D., & Bizzarri, K. I. M. (2004). The Global Governance of Communicable Diseases: The Case for Vaccine R&D. Law & Policy, 27(1), 33-51. doi:
  5. Aron, J., & Muellbauer, J. (29 September 2020). The US excess mortality rate from COVID-19 is substantially worse than Europe’s. Retrieved from
  6. Bavel, J. J. V., Baicker, K., Boggio, P. S., Capraro, V., Cichocka, A., Cikara, M., . . . Willer, R. (2020). Using social and behavioural science to support COVID-19 pandemic response. Nature Human Behaviour, 4(5), 460-471. doi:10.1038/s41562-020-0884-z
  7. Cakanlar, A., Trudel, R., & White, K. (2020). Political Ideology and the Perceived Impact of Coronavirus Prevention Behaviors for the Self and Others. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research. doi:10.1086/711834
  8. Calvillo, D. P., Ross, B. J., Garcia, R. J. B., Smelter, T. J., & Rutchick, A. M. (2020). Political Ideology Predicts Perceptions of the Threat of COVID-19 (and Susceptibility to Fake News About It). Social Psychological and Personality Science, 11(8), 1119-1128. doi:
  9. Calvo, E., & Ventura, T. (2021). Will I Get COVID-19? Partisanship, Social Media Frames, and Perceptions of Health Risk in Brazil. Latin American Politics and Society, 1-2. doi:10.1017/lap.2021.17
  10. Christensen, S. R., Pilling, E. B., Eyring, J. B., Dickerson, G., Sloan, C. D., & Magnusson, B. M. (2020). Political and personal reactions to COVID-19 during initial weeks of social distancing in the United States. PloS one, 15(9), e0239693. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239693
  11. Clinton, J., Cohen, J., Lapinski, J., & Trussler, M. (2021). Partisan pandemic: How partisanship and public health concerns affect individuals’ social mobility during COVID-19. Science Advances, 7(2), eabd7204. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abd7204
  12. Coleman, D. L., & Rosoff, P. M. (2020). The enhanced danger of physicians’ off-label prescribing during a public health emergency. Journal of Law and the Biosciences, 7(1). doi:10.1093/jlb/lsaa031
  13. Doerr, M., & Wagner, J. K. (2020). Research ethics in a pandemic: considerations for the use of research infrastructure and resources for public health activities. Journal of Law and the Biosciences, 7(1). doi:10.1093/jlb/lsaa028
  14. Ewick, P., & Silbey, S. S. (1998). The common place of law : stories from everyday life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  15. Flynn, D. J., Nyhan, B., & Reifler, J. (2017). The Nature and Origins of Misperceptions: Understanding False and Unsupported Beliefs About Politics. Political Psychology, 38, 127-150. doi:
  16. Galanter, M. (1974). Why the "Haves" Come out Ahead: Speculations on the Limits of Legal Change. Law & Society Review, 9(1), 95-160. doi:10.2307/3053023
  17. Gollwitzer, A., Martel, C., Brady, W. J., Pärnamets, P., Freedman, I. G., Knowles, E. D., & Van Bavel, J. J. (2020). Partisan differences in physical distancing are linked to health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nature Human Behaviour, 4(11), 1186-1197. doi:10.1038/s41562-020-00977-7
  18. Granfield, R. (2007). The Meaning of Pro Bono: Institutional Variations in Professional Obligations among Lawyers. Law & Society Review, 41(1), 113-146. doi:
  19. Haltinner, K., & Sarathchandra, D. (2017). Tea Party Health Narratives and Belief Polarization: the Journey to Killing Grandma. AIMS public health, 4(6), 557-578. doi:10.3934/publichealth.2017.6.557
  20. Heinz, J. P. (2005). Urban lawyers : the new social structure of the bar. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  21. Heinz, J. P., & Laumann, E. O. (1994). Chicago Lawyers: The Social Structure of the Bar. Chicago: Northwestern University Press.
  22. Hersh, E. D., & Goldenberg, M. N. (2016). Democratic and Republican physicians provide different care on politicized health issues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 113(42), 11811-11816. doi:10.1073/pnas.1606609113
  23. Hirschl, R. (2008a). The Judicialization of Mega-Politics and the Rise of Political Courts. Annual Review of Political Science, 11(1), 93-118. doi:10.1146/annurev.polisci.11.053006.183906
  24. Hirschl, R. (2008b). The Judicialization of Politics. In (Vol. 1): Oxford University Press.
  25. Jacobs, L. A. (2007). Rights and Quarantine During the SARS Global Health Crisis: Differentiated Legal Consciousness in Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Toronto. Law & Society Review, 41(3), 511-552. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5893.2007.00313.x
  26. Jerry, R. H., II. (2020). COVID-19: responsibility and accountability in a world of rationing. Journal of Law and the Biosciences. doi:10.1093/jlb/lsaa076
  27. Klug, H. (2012). Access to Medicines and the Transformation of the South African State: Exploring the Interactions of Legal and Policy Changes in Health, Intellectual Property, Trade, and Competition Law in the Context of South Africa's HIV/AIDS Pandemic. Law & Social Inquiry, 37(2), 297-329. doi:10.1111/j.1747-4469.2011.01268.x
  28. Knoppers, B. M., Beauvais, M. J. S., Joly, Y., Zawati, M. n. H., Rousseau, S., Chassé, M., & Mooser, V. (2020). Modeling consent in the time of COVID-19. Journal of Law and the Biosciences, 7(1). doi:10.1093/jlb/lsaa020
  29. Largent, E. A. (2016). EBOLA and FDA: reviewing the response to the 2014 outbreak, to find lessons for the future. Journal of Law and the Biosciences, 3(3), 489-537. doi:10.1093/jlb/lsw046
  30. Levitsky, S., & Zibblat, D. (2018). How Democracies Die. New York: Crown.
  31. Levitsky, S. R. (2013). Integrating Law and Health Policy. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 9(1), 33-50. doi:10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-102612-133949
  32. Mameli, P. (2000). Managing the HIV/AIDS Pandemic: Paving a Path into the Future of International Law and Organization. Law & Policy, 22(2), 203-224. doi:10.1111/1467-9930.00091
  33. Mariner, W. K., Annas, G. J., & Parmet, W. E. (2009). Pandemic Preparedness: A Return to the Rule of Law Symposium: Health Law Professors Conference. Drexel Law Review, 1(2), 341-382. Retrieved from
  34. ection=journals&div=17&id=347&print=section&sction=17
  35. Mounk, Y. (2018). The people vs. democracy: why our freedom is in danger and how to save it. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  36. Nelson, R. L., & Trubek, D. M. (1992). Arenas of Professionalism: The Professional Ideologies of Lawyers in Collective and Workplace Contexts.
  37. Nickerson, R. S. (1998). Confirmation Bias: A Ubiquitous Phenomenon in Many Guises. Review of General Psychology, 2(2), 175-220. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.2.2.175
  38. Parmet, W. (2011). Pandemics, Populism and the Role of Law in the H1N1 Vaccine Campaign. Journal of health law, 4, 7.
  39. Pozen, D. E., & Scheppele, K. L. (2020). Executive Underreach, in Pandemics and Otherwise. American Journal of International Law, 114(4), 608-617. doi:10.1017/ajil.2020.59
  40. Redlener, I., Sachs, J. D., Hansen, S., & Hupert, N. (October 21, 2020). 130,000 – 210,000 Avoidable COVID-19 Deaths – and Counting – in the U.S. Retrieved from
  41. Seron, C. (1996). The Business of Practicing Law: The Work Lives of Solo and Small-Firm Attorneys. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
  42. Simpson, B. (2020). Mass Hysteria, Manufacturing Crisis and the Legal Reconstruction of Acceptable Exercise during a Pandemic. Leisure Sciences, 1-7. doi:10.1080/01490400.2020.1774002
  43. Snyder, T. (2018). The road to unfreedom: Russia, Europe, America. New York: Tim Duggan Books.
  44. Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2013). Myside Bias, Rational Thinking, and Intelligence. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22(4), 259-264. doi:10.1177/0963721413480174
  45. Tate, C. N., & Vallinder, T. r. (Eds.). (1995). The global expansion of judicial power. New York: New York University Press.
  46. Thomson, S., & Ip, E. C. (2020). COVID-19 emergency measures and the impending authoritarian pandemic. Journal of Law and the Biosciences, 7(1). doi:10.1093/jlb/lsaa064
  47. Tremblay-Huet, S., McMorrow, T., Wiebe, E., Kelly, M., Hennawy, M., & Sum, B. (2020). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical assistance in dying in Canada and the relationship of public health laws to private understandings of the legal order. Journal of Law and the Biosciences, 7(1). doi:10.1093/jlb/lsaa087
  48. Vasquez Reyes, M. (2020). The Disproportional Impact of COVID-19 on African Americans. Health and human rights, 22(2), 299-307. Retrieved from
  50. Weait, M. (2013). Unsafe law: health, rights and the legal response to HIV. International Journal of Law in Context, 9(4), 535-564. doi:10.1017/S1744552313000293
  51. White, M. D., & Fradella, H. F. (2020). Policing a Pandemic: Stay-at-Home Orders and What they Mean for the Police. American journal of criminal justice : AJCJ, 1-16. doi:10.1007/s12103-020-09538-0
  52. Woolhandler, S., Himmelstein, D. U., Ahmed, S., Bailey, Z., Bassett, M. T., Bird, M., . . . Venkataramani, A. (2021). Public policy and health in the Trump era. The Lancet, 397(10275), 705-753. doi:
  53. Yakovi Gan-Or, N. (2020). Going solo: the law and ethics of childbirth during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Law and the Biosciences, 7(1). doi:10.1093/jlb/lsaa079


Não há dados estatísticos.